Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

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Mendeleev Dmitry Ivanovich (1834-1907) - a great Russian scientist, chemist, physicist, teacher, public figure. In 1859 he discovered the periodic law, on the basis of which he created the periodic system of elements. He left over 500 scientific publications, including the classic textbook "Fundamentals of Chemistry". In his works, the foundations of the theory of solutions are revealed, an industrial method of fractional separation of oil is proposed. He was the organizer and the first director of the Main Chamber of Weights and Measures (1893).

Mendeleev was born into a large family. Mendeleev was born on January 27, 1834. He became 17 and the last child in the family. By the time of his birth, only two brothers and five sisters remained in the family. Father - Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev was the director of the Tobolsk gymnasium and schools of the Tobolsk district. Mother, Maria Dmitrievna, had her roots in an old, but impoverished merchant family. Ivan Pavlovich died in 1847, leaving the entire burden of responsibility on the shoulders of his wife. Despite this, she, being a strong, educated and intelligent woman, was able to take care of her children and give them a decent education.

Mendeleev studied well at the gymnasium. Actually this is not true. Dmitry Ivanovich hated the routine that reigned in the school walls and studied mediocre. With particular zeal, he studied only two subjects - mathematics and physics. Throughout his life, a negative attitude towards the classical school remained in his soul. However, his fate in the Main Pedagogical Institute of St. Petersburg at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, he learned the full power of education. Despite the fact that the first course was given to him with great difficulty, he graduated from the university with a gold medal. Later Dmitry Ivanovich became one of the best teachers in Russia.

Mendeleev stopped teaching at St. Petersburg University due to a conflict with the Minister of Education. In the spring of 1890, student riots broke out at the university. The students worked out a petition addressed to the Minister of Public Education Delyanov. It did not contain any revolutionary ideas, as some suggest, and was of a purely academic nature. Mendeleev agreed to hand over the petition to the minister on condition that the students stop the riots that have arisen. However, the minister did not consider the petition, and answered Mendeleev rude and tactless. As a result, riots resumed. Dmitry Ivanovich could not bear such an attitude towards himself and his students and submitted a letter of resignation.

Mendeleev invented vodka. Mendeleev did not invent vodka. He wrote and defended his doctoral dissertation "Discourse on the combination of alcohol with water". Another controversial fact is the statement that Mendeleev proposed to release vodka with a strength of 40 degrees. In fact, this figure is not traced in his works. According to some sources, he suggested making vodka with a strength of 38 degrees, considering such a strength to be ideal. However, later this number was rounded to 40.

The principle of constructing the periodic system was formed by Mendeleev in a dream. This widespread version, frankly, somewhat belittles the merits of the great chemist. According to this version, Mendeleev invented and created a system in one day, and saw part of it during his daytime sleep. According to the memoirs of OE Ozarovskaya, once, when asked about the discovery of the periodic system, Mendeleev replied: "I have been thinking about it for twenty years, but you think: I was sitting and suddenly ... it was ready." These words fully reveal the long-term thought process of creating the periodic system. Even if he saw something in a dream, it only means that the thoughts of the genius were working even while his physical component was resting.

There is a lot of mysticism in the creation of the periodic table. Indeed, the brilliant discovery smacks of mysticism. Compiling the periodic table, Mendeleev arranged the elements in increasing atomic weight. Already on beryllium, it became clear that according to the scientific data of that time, the table did not work. And then it is really inexplicable: Mendeleev simply changed the atomic weight of beryllium and added an empty cell between titanium and calcium. He did this with almost the third part of the table. As a result, the weight of uranium increased by 4 times. This table not only classified the chemical elements, but also predicted the appearance of unknown elements. The feeling of something divine is created, but how can genius be explained?

Mendeleev was unhappy in his personal life. The first marriage of Dmitry Ivanovich really cannot be called happy. On April 29, 1862, he married Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva. In this marriage, two children were born: son Volodya and daughter Olga. Mendeleev loved children very much, but his relationship with his wife was cold. As a result, she gave him complete freedom, provided that he maintains an official marriage. At 43, Dmitry Ivanovich fell in love with 19-year-old Anyuta Pavlova. This relationship was initially very complicated. Anyuta's father was against it and asked Mendeleev to leave his daughter alone. As a result, Anyuta was sent abroad, where Dmitry Ivanovich, having lost his head, rushed after her. Divorce in those years was a very difficult process. To help an ingenious person arrange his personal life and for the sake of preserving his mental health Mendeleev, his friends Beketov N.N. and Ilyin N.P. asked the first wife for permission to divorce. After her consent and subsequent divorce, Dmitry Ivanovich had to wait another six years for a new marriage. To avoid this, he bribed the priest by paying him 10 thousand rubles for his marriage with Anyuta (note that his estate cost him only 8 thousand rubles). This marriage turned out to be very successful. The couple got along well and understood each other perfectly. Daughter Lyuba, who appeared in this marriage, became the wife of A. Blok.

Mendeleev was engaged in the manufacture of suitcases. Indeed, despite his employment and achievements in many scientific fields, Dmitry Ivanovich was fond of bookbinding and made suitcases. In this regard, even funny things happened. They say that when, when buying material in a store, the seller was asked: "Who is this?" He replied: "Don't you know? This is the famous suitcase master Mendeleev." It is also known that Mendeleev shipped his own clothes, considering the purchased ones uncomfortable.

Mendeleev lost his sight at the end of his life. In 1895, Mendeleev went blind as a result of developing cataracts. During these years, he already led the Chamber of Weights and Measures created by him. It was a difficult time for such an active person. All business documents were read aloud to him, the secretary wrote down orders. Thanks to two operations successfully carried out by Professor I.V. Kostenich, the cataract was removed and Mendeleev's vision returned.

Mendeleev was engaged only in science. Mendeleev had a wide range of knowledge and could influence the minds of people. He put a lot of effort into shaping the industry and economy of Russia. In his writings, he proposed reforming the community, introducing an artel organization of labor. Dmitry Ivanovich pays special attention to the oil industry. It was for information on this issue that in 1876 he was sent by the government to America. He studied oil fields in Russia, paying particular attention to the Caucasus. Some of his works are devoted specifically to oil refining. In addition, he dealt with the issues of the Donetsk coal basin and its rationalization. Thus, he had a great influence not only in the scientific field, but also in solving the internal economic issues of Russia ...

Watch the video: Mendeleevs Periodic Table (August 2022).